After the Mongol Conquests, the area became increasingly dominated by Turkic peoples.
The city of Shahrisabz was the birthplace of the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur, also known as one of Ghangis Khan grandchild, who in the 14th century established the Timurid Empire and was proclaimed the Supreme Emir of Turan with his capital in Samarkand.
Its official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population.
Russian has widespread use; it is the most widely taught second language.
The country also operates the largest open-pit gold mine in the world.
With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gas, Uzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia.
In addition, due to its location within a series of endorheic basins, none of its rivers lead to the sea.
Less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The highest point in Uzbekistan is the Khazret Sultan, at 4,643 metres (15,233 ft) above sea level, in the southern part of the Gissar Range in Surkhandarya Province, on the border with Tajikistan, just northwest of Dushanbe (formerly called Peak of the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party).
In 1924, after national delimitation, the constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created.Uzbekistan lies between latitudes 37° and 46° N, and longitudes 56° and 74° E.It stretches 1,425 kilometres (885 mi) from west to east and 930 kilometres (580 mi) from north to south.Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural environment.However, decades of questionable Soviet policies in pursuit of greater cotton production have resulted in a catastrophic scenario with the agricultural industry being the main contributor to the pollution and devastation of both air and water in the country.), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.It is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city.However, the Amnesty International report on human rights in the country for 2017/2018 described continued repressive measures, including forced labour in cotton harvesting, and restrictions on movements of 'freed' prisoners.The Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economy, with foreign trade policy being based on import substitution.Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%), and others (6.5%).Muslims constitute 79% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity, and 16% of the population follow other religions or are non-religious.